The vocabulary we have does more than communicate our knowledge; it shapes what we can know
Russian culture and culture of the countries of English language (sometimes about it speak – English-Saxon) – very different. Certainly, both of them concern in the broad sense of the word a western civilization and consequently distinctions between them aren’t so great, as, say, between any of them and culture of China or the Arabian world. And still it is serious, deep distinctions. Without understanding it, the translator can is hardly successful carry out a role of the cultural intermediary.
And it just the most difficult – to realize distinctions of cultures, national characters. Speaking about the national character, one French writer has noticed: all of us in general we understand that such, but almost any statement in this respect it is possible to deny this.
We take, for example, Russian word «созвониться». Such word be simple can’t in English language! After all it means about the following: two persons promise to call each other, without agreeing, who will take the lead but so that to come into contact. In the concrete text one this word designates also number (unique or plural), time, a place, a sort (i.e., as a matter of fact, a floor speaking – truth, it only in past tense). In English language all these relations or are expressed by two or several words (time), or not expressed in general meant). Similar examples, especially verbs, it is possible to result great variety.
Typically Russian expressions – «прорвало трубу», «ветром продуло», «сорвало крышу» etc. In English naturally we will tell: the pipe burst, I caught a cold, the wind blew off the roof.
In Russian texts, especially official, scientific, publicistic, many abstract lexicon, generalizations. The concrete lexicon prevails, generalization is meant is more often, than is expressed directly.